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Computer science

Concept of Booting: Cold Booting and Warm Booting

Concept of Booting When the computer is switched on, a copy of boot program is brought from ROM into the main memory. This process is called booting. The CPU first runs a jump instruction that transfers to BIOS (Basic Input output System) and it starts executing. The BIOS conducts a series of self diagnostic tests called POST (Power On Self Test). These tests include memory tests,......
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Input and Output Unit in Computer process

Input Unit in Computers The input unit consists of input devices that are attached to the computer. These devices take input and convert it into binary language that the computer understands. Some of the common input devices are keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner etc. Central Processing Unit (CPU) Once the information is entered into the computer by the input device, the......
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

System Software : Need, Function and Type of System Software

System Software System Software is the software that is directly related to coordinating computer operations and performs tasks associated with controlling and utilizing computer hardware. These programs assist in running application programs and are designed to control the operation of a computer system. System software directs the computer what to do, when to do and how to do.......
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Types of Software : System, Application and Utility Software

Software : It is a general term used for computer programs that control the operations of the computer. A program is a sequence of instructions that perform a particular task. A set of programs form a software. It is the software which gives hardware its capability. Hardware is of no use without software and software cannot be used without hardware. Types of Software :  .....
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Classification of Computers : Digital Computers, Analog Computers, Hybrid Computers

Classification of Computers : The computers can be classified based on the technology being used as: Digital, Analog and Hybrid Digital Computers These computers are capable of processing information in discrete form. In digital technology data which can be in the form of letters, symbols or numbers is represented in binary form i.e. 0s and 1s. Binary digits are easily expressed in...
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Classification of Digital Computers

Classification of Digital Computers : The digital computers are classified according to their computing capabilities. The various types of digital computers are discussed below: Micro Computers These are also known as Personal Computers. These type of digital computer uses a microprocessor (a CPU on a single chip) and include both desktops and laptops. These computers can work...
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Generation of Computers

Generation of Computers : Growth in the computer industry is determined by the development in technology. Each phase/generation of computer development is characterized by one or more hardware/software developments that distinctly improved the performance of the computers of that generation. Based on various stages of development, computers can be divided into different generations....
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Von Neumann stored program computer

Dr. John Von Neumann Concept: In 1945, Dr. John Von Neumann proposed the concept of a stored program computer. As per this concept the program and data could be stored in the same memory unit.  How Does the Dr. John Von Neumann Architecture works  According to Von Neumann architecture, the processor executes instructions stored in the memory of the computer.......
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Difference engine and Analytical Engine & Mark 1

Difference engine and Analytical Engine Charles Babbage, an English mathematician developed a machine called Difference Engine in 1822 which could calculate various mathematical functions, do polynomial evaluation by finite difference and theoretically could also solve differential equations. Difference Engine and Analytical engineThereafter in 1833, he designed the Analytical......
Posted on: 28th August 2016 Read more →

Leibniz’s Calculator and Jacquard’s Loom

Leibniz’s Calculator In 1673 Gottfried Leibnitz, a German mathematician extended the capabilities of the adding machine invented by Pascal to perform multiplication and division as well. The multiplication was done through repeated addition of numbers using a stepped cylinder each with nine teeth of varying lengths. Jacquard’s Loom In order to make the cotton......
Posted on: 27th August 2016 Read more →


Pascaline : Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician invented an adding machine in 1642 that was made up of gears and was used for adding numbers quickly. This machine was also called Pascaline and was capable of addition and subtraction along with carry-transfer capability. It worked on clock work mechanism principle. It consisted of various numbered toothed wheels having unique....
Posted on: 27th August 2016 Read more →

Napier’s Logs and Bones

Napier’s Logs and Bones: Napier's bones is a manually-operated calculating device created by John Napier of Merchiston for calculation of products and quotients of numbers. The method was based on Arab mathematics and the lattice multiplication used by Matrakci Nasuh in the Umdet-ul Hisab and Fibonacci's work in his Liber Abaci.  Who Developed......
Posted on: 27th August 2016 Read more →


Abacus was discovered by the Mesopotamians in around 3000 BC. An abacus consisted of beads on movable rods divided into two parts. (Fig-1) Addition and multiplication of numbers was done by using the place value of digits of the numbers and position of beads in an abacus. The Chinese further improved on the abacus so that calculations could be done more easily. Even today abacus is......
Posted on: 27th August 2016 Read more →

Shortcuts for Computer Excel

  Excel Shortcut Keys Key Description CTRL+PgUp Switches between worksheet tabs, from left-to-right. CTRL+PgDn Switches between worksheet tabs, from right-to-left. CTRL+SHIFT+( Unhides any hidden rows within the selection. CTRL+SHIFT+) Unhides any hidden columns within the selection. ...
Posted on: 18th July 2016 Read more →
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